Indian Constitution is a unique in world practice, the constitutional document. It is the largest constitution in the world in terms of volume – it includes 395 articles, 12 schedules and 83 amendments.
It is very extensive and detailed and its main content refers to the most important aspects of social and political system, as well as the legal status of a person.
The Constitution of India is distinct in eclecticism: the authors sought to combine all the best constitutional achievements of other states. As a result, Indian Constitution borrowed a number of provisions of the constitutional acts from the former metropolis – the UK, as well as from the constitutions of the USSR, the USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and other countries.
Indian constitution is very flexible, providing an extremely simple procedure for amendments. As a result, during its existence, hundreds of its various provisions have undergone changes, thus making the constitution more adapted to the situation.
As a result of amendments, about 80 new entries have been added and about 20 have been deleted – the total was about 500 changes to the text. Some amendments are made to the text of the Constitution, changing it, while others are attached to it. Some of the amendments are so voluminous that their volume is close to the U.S. Constitution.
Despite the fact that the Constitution of India is very large and has a complex structure, one can identify the most important characteristic of its features:
* The legal consolidation of the sovereignty of the Republic of India, gained through Indian national liberation movement (Preamble).
* Negative attitude to social inequality.
* Proclamation of a very wide range of rights, freedoms and responsibilities of citizens (Parts 3, 4, 4-A) taking into account such specific features of Indian society as the caste system, and the gap in levels of various ethnic groups.
* Upholding the principle of a mixed economy in which the public sector plays an important role. In particular, it is provided for limitation and elimination of large monopolies, the introduction of a special anti-monopoly legislation.
* The combination of traditional Indian institutions, with institutions that have emerged as a result of the global development of constitutional law.
* The policy of maintaining world peace and international security, in which the interests of India play a key role.